Quantitative Easing refers to a process whereby the national banks increase the monetary supply by purchasing government bonds and other assets through money it creates out of nothing. This process can be broken down into the three following steps:
- The national bank declares an extremely low rate of interest, for example 0.5%.
- The national bank credits its own bank account with money created from 'thin air' through lending interests.
- The newly created money is then used for buying government bonds from financial firms such as banks, insurance companies and pension funds.
In March of 2009, the Federal Reserve announced that it would be initiating a program to purchase $300 Billion Treasury securities before September of 2009. In August, the Federal Reserve stated that it would be reducing the pace of investments to extend the program until in the end of October.
On November 3, 2009 the Federal Reserve began a second round of purchasing an additional $600 billion in long term Treasury securities. The New York Federal Reserve announced that it would also be reinvesting $250-$300 Billion in funds received from payments on principal from mortgage backed securities. This brings the total amount of QE2 to $850-$900 Billion, which was to be spent by the end of the second quarter of 2011.
(Much of the text below was taken from the Business Insider source)
What is Quantitative Easing
The term quantitative easing (QE) describes a form of monetary policy used by central banks to increase the supply of money in an economy when the bank interest rate, discount rate and/or interbank interest rate are either at, or close to, zero.
A central bank does this by first crediting its own account with money it has created ex nihilo ("out of nothing"). It then purchases financial assets, including government bonds and corporate bonds, from banks and other financial institutions in a process referred to as open market operations. The purchases, by way of account deposits, give banks the excess reserves required for them to create new money. Due to rules that require banks to only possess a fraction of the money they lend out, each dollar given to the banks by the Treasury Department represents only a fraction of the money injected into the economy. The increase in the money supply thus stimulates the economy. Risks include the policy being more effective than intended, spurring hyperinflation, or the risk of not being effective enough, if banks opt simply to pocket the additional cash in order to increase their capital reserves in a climate of increasing defaults in their present loan portfolio.
"Quantitative" refers to the fact that a specific quantity of money is being created; "easing" refers to reducing the pressure on banks. However, another explanation is that the name comes from the Japanese-language expression for "stimulatory monetary policy", which uses the term "easing". Quantitative easing is sometimes colloquially described as "printing money" although in reality the money is simply created by electronically adding a number to an account.
Ordinarily, the central bank uses its control of interest rates, or sometimes reserve requirements, to indirectly influence the supply of money. In some situations, such as very low inflation or deflation, setting a low interest rate is not enough to maintain an adequate money supply, and so quantitative easing is employed to further boost the amount of money in the financial system. This is often considered a "last resort" to increase the money supply. The first step is for the bank to create more money ex nihilo ("out of nothing") by crediting its own account. It can then use these funds to buy investments like government bonds from financial firms such as banks, insurance companies and pension funds, in a process known as "monetising the debt".
For example, in introducing its QE programme, the Bank of England bought gilts from financial institutions, along with a smaller amount of high-quality debt issued by private companies. The banks, insurance companies and pension funds can then use the money they have received for lending or even buying back more bonds from the bank. The central bank can also lend the new money to private banks or buy assets from banks in exchange for currency. These have the effect of depressing interest yields on government bonds and similar investments, making it cheaper for business to raise capital. Another positive side effect of this is that investors will swap to other investments, such as shares, boosting the price of these and increasing wealth in the economy. QE can also help in reducing interbank overnight interest rates, and thereby encourage banks to loan money to higher interest-paying bodies.
More specifically, in terms of the lending undertaken by commercial banks, they use a practice called fractional-reserve banking whereby they abide by a reserve requirement, which regulates them to keep a percentage of deposits in "reserve", which can only be used to settle transactions between them and the central bank. The remainder, called "excess reserves", can (but does not have to be) be used as a basis for lending. When, under QE, a central bank buys from an institution, the institution's bank account is credited directly and their bank gains reserves. The increase in deposits from the quantitative easing process causes an excess in reserves and private banks can then, if they wish, create even more new money out of "thin air" by increasing debt (lending) through a process known as deposit multiplication and thus increase the country's money supply. The reserve requirement limits the amount of new money. For example a 10% reserve requirement means that for every $10,000 created by quantitative easing the total new money created is potentially $100,000. The US Federal Reserve's now out-of-print booklet Modern Money Mechanics explains the process.
A state must be in control of its own currency and monetary policy if it is to be able to unilaterally employ quantitative easing. Countries in the eurozone (for example) cannot unilaterally use this policy tool, but must rely on the European Central Bank to implement it. There may also be other policy considerations. For example, under Article 123 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union and later Maastricht Treaty, EU member states are not allowed to finance their public deficits (debts) by simply printing the money required to fill the hole, as happened in Weimar Germany and more recently in Zimbabwe. Banks using QE, such as the Bank of England, have argued that they are increasing the supply of money not to fund government debt but to prevent deflation, and will choose the financial products they buy accordingly, for example, by buying government bonds not straight from the government, but in secondary markets.
Due to quantitative easing, by November of 2011 the Fed had acquired $1.65 trillion of federal bonds – in other words, loans to the US government. Some of these bonds matured in one or two years, some not for much longer – up to 30 years. To help the economy, the Fed initiated a plan to trade in some of its shorter-dated bonds for more of the longer-dated alternatives. By doing this, the Fed hoped that demand for the longer-dated variety will exceed supply. This in turn would drive up the price of those bonds, which depresses the "yield" – the effective rate of return the holder of the bond gets on their investment. The yield determines the interest rate. Lower long-term interest rates will lead to lower 25-year mortgage rates, car loans and other bank lending rates.
The plan, which later became known as "Operation Twist," was to sell $400 billion of shorter-term Treasury securities between November of 2011 and the end of June 2012, and use the proceeds to buy longer-term Treasury securities. This extended the average maturity of the securities in the Federal Reserve's portfolio. The plan was that by reducing the supply of longer-term Treasury securities in the market, downward pressure would be put on longer-term interest rates. The reduction in longer-term interest rates, would hopefully contribute to a broad easing in financial market conditions that would provide additional stimulus to support the economic recovery.
In September of 2011, the Federal Reserve Bank issued a press statement noting the initiation of the program that came to be known as Operation Twist.
Release Date: September 21, 2011
For immediate release
Information received since the Federal Open Market Committee met in August indicates that economic growth remains slow. Recent indicators point to continuing weakness in overall labor market conditions, and the unemployment rate remains elevated. Household spending has been increasing at only a modest pace in recent months despite some recovery in sales of motor vehicles as supply-chain disruptions eased. Investment in nonresidential structures is still weak, and the housing sector remains depressed. However, business investment in equipment and software continues to expand. Inflation appears to have moderated since earlier in the year as prices of energy and some commodities have declined from their peaks. Longer-term inflation expectations have remained stable.
Consistent with its statutory mandate, the Committee seeks to foster maximum employment and price stability. The Committee continues to expect some pickup in the pace of recovery over coming quarters but anticipates that the unemployment rate will decline only gradually toward levels that the Committee judges to be consistent with its dual mandate. Moreover, there are significant downside risks to the economic outlook, including strains in global financial markets. The Committee also anticipates that inflation will settle, over coming quarters, at levels at or below those consistent with the Committee's dual mandate as the effects of past energy and other commodity price increases dissipate further. However, the Committee will continue to pay close attention to the evolution of inflation and inflation expectations.
To support a stronger economic recovery and to help ensure that inflation, over time, is at levels consistent with the dual mandate, the Committee decided today to extend the average maturity of its holdings of securities. The Committee intends to purchase, by the end of June 2012, $400 billion of Treasury securities with remaining maturities of 6 years to 30 years and to sell an equal amount of Treasury securities with remaining maturities of 3 years or less. This program should put downward pressure on longer-term interest rates and help make broader financial conditions more accommodative. The Committee will regularly review the size and composition of its securities holdings and is prepared to adjust those holdings as appropriate.
To help support conditions in mortgage markets, the Committee will now reinvest principal payments from its holdings of agency debt and agency mortgage-backed securities in agency mortgage-backed securities. In addition, the Committee will maintain its existing policy of rolling over maturing Treasury securities at auction.
The Committee also decided to keep the target range for the federal funds rate at 0 to 1/4 percent and currently anticipates that economic conditions--including low rates of resource utilization and a subdued outlook for inflation over the medium run--are likely to warrant exceptionally low levels for the federal funds rate at least through mid-2013.
The Committee discussed the range of policy tools available to promote a stronger economic recovery in a context of price stability. It will continue to assess the economic outlook in light of incoming information and is prepared to employ its tools as appropriate.
Voting for the FOMC monetary policy action were: Ben S. Bernanke, Chairman; William C. Dudley, Vice Chairman; Elizabeth A. Duke; Charles L. Evans; Sarah Bloom Raskin; Daniel K. Tarullo; and Janet L. Yellen. Voting against the action were Richard W. Fisher, Narayana Kocherlakota, and Charles I. Plosser, who did not support additional policy accommodation at this time.
Swap lines involve two transactions. When a foreign central bank draws on its swap line with the Federal Reserve, the foreign central bank sells a specified amount of its currency to the Federal Reserve in exchange for dollars at the prevailing market exchange rate. The Federal Reserve holds the foreign currency in an account at the foreign central bank. The dollars that the Federal Reserve provides are deposited in an account that the foreign central bank maintains at the Federal Reserve Bank of New York. At the same time, the Federal Reserve and the foreign central bank enter into a binding agreement for a second transaction that obligates the foreign central bank to buy back its currency on a specified future date at the same exchange rate. The second transaction unwinds the first. At the conclusion of the second transaction, the foreign central bank pays interest, at a market-based rate, to the Federal Reserve.
When the foreign central bank lends the dollars it obtained by drawing on its swap line to institutions in its jurisdiction, the dollars are transferred from the foreign central bank's account at the Federal Reserve to the account of the bank that the borrowing institution uses to clear its dollar transactions. The foreign central bank remains obligated to return the dollars to the Federal Reserve under the terms of the agreement, and the Federal Reserve is not a counterparty to the loan extended by the foreign central bank. The foreign central bank bears the credit risk associated with the loans it makes to institutions in its jurisdiction.
Swap Lines and the Fed
In December of 2007, the Federal Reserve established swap lines with the European Central Bank (ECB) and the Swiss National Bank (SNB). These arrangements were set to provide dollars in amounts of up to $20 billion and $4 billion to the ECB and the SNB, respectively, for use in their jurisdictions. The FOMC approved these swap lines for a period of up to six months.
Release Date: December 12, 2007
For immediate release
Today, the Bank of Canada, the Bank of England, the European Central Bank, the Federal Reserve, and the Swiss National Bank are announcing measures designed to address elevated pressures in short-term funding markets.
Federal Reserve Actions
Actions taken by the Federal Reserve include the establishment of a temporary Term Auction Facility (approved by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System) and the establishment of foreign exchange swap lines with the European Central Bank and the Swiss National Bank (approved by the Federal Open Market Committee).
Under the Term Auction Facility (TAF) program, the Federal Reserve will auction term funds to depository institutions against the wide variety of collateral that can be used to secure loans at the discount window. All depository institutions that are judged to be in generally sound financial condition by their local Reserve Bank and that are eligible to borrow under the primary credit discount window program will be eligible to participate in TAF auctions. All advances must be fully collateralized. By allowing the Federal Reserve to inject term funds through a broader range of counterparties and against a broader range of collateral than open market operations, this facility could help promote the efficient dissemination of liquidity when the unsecured interbank markets are under stress.
Each TAF auction will be for a fixed amount, with the rate determined by the auction process (subject to a minimum bid rate). The first TAF auction of $20 billion is scheduled for Monday, December 17, with settlement on Thursday, December 20; this auction will provide 28-day term funds, maturing Thursday, January 17, 2008. The second auction of up to $20 billion is scheduled for Thursday, December 20, with settlement on Thursday, December 27; this auction will provide 35-day funds, maturing Thursday, January 31, 2008. The third and fourth auctions will be held on January 14 and 28, with settlement on the following Thursdays. The amounts of those auctions will be determined in January. The Federal Reserve may conduct additional auctions in subsequent months, depending in part on evolving market conditions.
Depositories will submit bids through their local Reserve Banks. The minimum bid rate for the auctions will be established at the overnight indexed swap (OIS) rate corresponding to the maturity of the credit being auctioned. The OIS rate is a measure of market participants’ expected average federal funds rate over the relevant term. The minimum rate for the December 17 auction along with other auction details will be announced on Friday, December 14. Noncompetitive tenders may be accepted beginning with the third auction. The results of the first auction will be announced at 10 a.m. Eastern Time on December 19. The schedule for releasing the results of later auctions will be determined subsequently. Detailed terms of the auction and summary auction results will be available at http://www.federalreserve.gov/monetarypolicy/taf.htm.
Experience gained under this temporary program will be helpful in assessing the potential usefulness of augmenting the Federal Reserve’s current monetary policy tools--open market operations and the primary credit facility--with a permanent facility for auctioning term discount window credit. The Board anticipates that it would seek public comment on any proposal for a permanent term auction facility.
The Federal Open Market Committee has authorized temporary reciprocal currency arrangements (swap lines) with the European Central Bank (ECB) and the Swiss National Bank (SNB). These arrangements will provide dollars in amounts of up to $20 billion and $4 billion to the ECB and the SNB, respectively, for use in their jurisdictions. The FOMC approved these swap lines for a period of up to six months.
Release Date: March 11, 2008
For immediate release
Since the coordinated actions taken in December 2007, the G-10 central banks have continued to work together closely and to consult regularly on liquidity pressures in funding markets. Pressures in some of these markets have recently increased again. We all continue to work together and will take appropriate steps to address those liquidity pressures.
To that end, today the Bank of Canada, the Bank of England, the European Central Bank, the Federal Reserve, and the Swiss National Bank are announcing specific measures.
Federal Reserve Actions
The Federal Reserve announced today an expansion of its securities lending program. Under this new Term Securities Lending Facility (TSLF), the Federal Reserve will lend up to $200 billion of Treasury securities to primary dealers secured for a term of 28 days (rather than overnight, as in the existing program) by a pledge of other securities, including federal agency debt, federal agency residential-mortgage-backed securities (MBS), and non-agency AAA/Aaa-rated private-label residential MBS. The TSLF is intended to promote liquidity in the financing markets for Treasury and other collateral and thus to foster the functioning of financial markets more generally. As is the case with the current securities lending program, securities will be made available through an auction process. Auctions will be held on a weekly basis, beginning on March 27, 2008. The Federal Reserve will consult with primary dealers on technical design features of the TSLF.
In addition, the Federal Open Market Committee has authorized increases in its existing temporary reciprocal currency arrangements (swap lines) with the European Central Bank (ECB) and the Swiss National Bank (SNB). These arrangements will now provide dollars in amounts of up to $30 billion and $6 billion to the ECB and the SNB, respectively, representing increases of $10 billion and $2 billion. The FOMC extended the term of these swap lines through September 30, 2008.
The actions announced today supplement the measures announced by the Federal Reserve on Friday to boost the size of the Term Auction Facility to $100 billion and to undertake a series of term repurchase transactions that will cumulate to $100 billion.
Release Date: July 30, 2008
For release at 8:45 a.m. EDT
The Federal Reserve today announced several steps to enhance the effectiveness of its existing liquidity facilities, including the introduction of longer terms to maturity in its Term Auction Facility. In association with this change, the European Central Bank and the Swiss National Bank are adapting the maturity of their operations.
Federal Reserve Actions
Actions taken by the Federal Reserve include:
Extension of the Primary Dealer Credit Facility (PDCF) and the Term Securities Lending Facility (TSLF) through January 30, 2009.
The introduction of auctions of options on $50 billion of draws on the TSLF.
The introduction of 84-day Term Auction Facility (TAF) loans as a complement to 28-day TAF loans.
An increase in the Federal Reserve's swap line with the European Central Bank to $55 billion from $50 billion.
These actions are described in detail below.
Extension of the PDCF and TSLF
In light of continued fragile circumstances in financial markets, the Board has extended the PDCF through January 30, 2009, and the Board and the Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC) have extended the TSLF through that same date. These facilities would be withdrawn should the Board determine that conditions in financial markets are no longer unusual and exigent.
The PDCF provides discount window loans to primary dealers, collateralized by investment-grade securities. The interest rate charged is the primary credit rate (discount rate) of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York. Under the TSLF, the Federal Reserve Bank of New York conducts weekly auctions of 28-day loans of Treasury securities to primary dealers. Loans under the TSLF are collateralized by a range of government and private securities.
Auctions of TSLF Options
The FOMC has authorized the Federal Reserve Bank of New York to auction options for primary dealers to borrow Treasury securities from the TSLF. The Federal Reserve intends to offer such options for exercise in advance of periods that are typically characterized by elevated stress in financial markets, such as quarter ends. Under the options program, up to $50 billion of draws on the TSLF using options may be outstanding at any time. This amount is in addition to the $200 billion of Treasury securities that may be offered through the regular TSLF auctions. Draws on the TSLF through exercise of these options may be collateralized by the full range of TSLF Schedule 2 collateral. (Schedule 2 collateral includes Treasury securities, federal agency debt securities, mortgage-backed securities issued or guaranteed by federal agencies, and AAA/Aaa-rated private-label residential mortgage-backed, commercial mortgage-backed, and asset-backed securities.) Additional details of this program will be announced once consultations with the primary dealer community have been completed.
Eighty-four-day Term Auction Facility Loans
Beginning on August 11, the Federal Reserve will auction 84-day TAF loans while continuing to auction 28-day TAF funds. Specifically, the Federal Reserve will conduct biweekly TAF auctions, alternating between auctions of $75 billion of 28-day credit and auctions of $25 billion of 84-day credit. Currently, the Federal Reserve auctions $75 billion of 28-day funds every two weeks. During a transition period, the amount of 28-day credit being auctioned will be reduced to keep the amount of TAF credit outstanding at $150 billion. A schedule of TAF auctions and applicable terms and conditions can be found at http://www.federalreserve.gov/monetarypolicy/taf.htm.
Under the TAF, the Federal Reserve auctions term funds to depository institutions, secured by a wide variety of collateral. All depository institutions that are judged to be in generally sound financial condition by their local Reserve Bank are eligible to participate in TAF auctions.
Increase in Swap Line with European Central Bank
The European Central Bank (ECB) and the Swiss National Bank (SNB) have informed the Federal Reserve that, in association with the lengthening of the maturity of the Federal Reserve's TAF loans, these central banks will also make 84-day funds, as well as 28-day funds, available at their dollar auctions. The FOMC has authorized an increase in its dollar swap line with the ECB to $55 billion from $50 billion in order to accommodate a temporary increase in the ECB’s dollar auctions as the ECB shifts some of its auctions to 84-day terms. The size of the SNB’s swap line remains at $12 billion. These swap lines are authorized through January 30, 2009.
Release Date: September 26, 2008
For release at 2:00 a.m. EDT
Central banks have been employing coordinated measures designed to address the pressures in global money markets. Most recently, central banks have acted together to inject dollars into the overnight markets. Using their reciprocal currency arrangements (swap lines) with the Federal Reserve, the Bank of England, the European Central Bank (ECB), and the Swiss National Bank today are announcing the introduction of operations to provide U.S. dollar liquidity with a one-week maturity. These operations are designed to address funding pressures over quarter end. Central banks continue to work together closely and are prepared to take further steps as needed to address the ongoing pressures in funding markets.
Federal Reserve Actions
To assist in the expansion of these operations, the Federal Open Market Committee has authorized a $10 billion increase in its temporary swap facility with the ECB and a $3 billion increase in its facility with the Swiss National Bank. These expanded facilities will now support the provision of U.S. dollar liquidity in amounts of up to $120 billion by the ECB and up to $30 billion by the Swiss National Bank.
In sum, these changes represent a $13 billion addition to the $277 billion previously authorized temporary reciprocal currency arrangements with other central banks. In addition to the swap lines with ECB and the Swiss National Bank, temporary swap lines previously have been authorized with: the Bank of Japan ($60 billion), the Bank of England ($40 billion), the Reserve Bank of Australia ($10 billion), the Bank of Canada ($10 billion), the Bank of Sweden ($10 billion), the National Bank of Denmark ($5 billion), and the Bank of Norway ($5 billion).
These arrangements have been authorized through January 30, 2009.
Release Date: September 29, 2008
For release at 10:00 a.m. EDT
In response to continued strains in short-term funding markets, central banks today are announcing further coordinated actions to expand significantly the capacity to provide U.S. dollar liquidity. Central banks will continue to work together closely and are prepared to take appropriate steps as needed to address funding pressures.
Federal Reserve Actions
The Federal Reserve announced today several initiatives to support financial stability and to maintain a stable flow of credit to the economy during this period of significant strain in global markets.
We will continue to adapt these liquidity facilities as necessary and will keep them in place as long as circumstances require.
Actions by the Federal Reserve include: (1) an increase in the size of the 84-day maturity Term Auction Facility (TAF) auctions to $75 billion per auction from $25 billion beginning with the October 6 auction, (2) two forward TAF auctions totaling $150 billion that will be conducted in November to provide term funding over year-end, and (3) an increase in swap authorization limits with the Bank of Canada, Bank of England, Bank of Japan, Danmarks Nationalbank (National Bank of Denmark), European Central Bank (ECB), Norges Bank (Bank of Norway), Reserve Bank of Australia, Sveriges Riksbank (Bank of Sweden), and Swiss National Bank to a total of $620 billion, from $290 billion previously.
These steps are being undertaken to mitigate pressures evident in the term funding markets both in the United States and abroad. By committing to provide a very large quantity of term funding, the Federal Reserve actions should reassure financial market participants that financing will be available against good collateral, lessening concerns about funding and rollover risk.
84-Day Maturity TAF Auctions
The increase to $75 billion per auction will triple the supply of 84-day maturity credit to $225 billion from $75 billion. TAF credit at the 28-day maturity will remain at $75 billion. The total amount of TAF credit available in the 28-day and 84-day auction cycles will double to $300 billion from $150 billion.
Forward TAF Auctions
The forward TAF auctions are a new program designed to provide reassurance to market participants that term funding will be available over year-end. The timing and terms of the two forward TAF auctions will be determined after consultations with depository institutions that utilize the TAF program.
It is anticipated that there will be two auctions in November totaling $150 billion. These auctions will provide short-term (one- to two-week term) TAF credit over year-end.
Foreign Exchange Swap Lines
The Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC) has authorized a $330 billion expansion of its temporary reciprocal currency arrangements (swap lines). This increased capacity will be available to provide funding for U.S. dollar liquidity operations by the other central banks. The FOMC has authorized increases in all of the temporary swap facilities with other central banks. These larger facilities will now support the provision of U.S. dollar liquidity in amounts of up to $30 billion by the Bank of Canada, $80 billion by the Bank of England, $120 billion by the Bank of Japan, $15 billion by Danmarks Nationalbank, $240 billion by the ECB, $15 billion by the Norges Bank, $30 billion by the Reserve Bank of Australia, $30 billion by the Sveriges Riksbank, and $60 billion by the Swiss National Bank. As a result of these actions, the total size of outstanding swap lines is $620 billion.
All of the temporary reciprocal swap facilities have been authorized through April 30, 2009.
Dollar funding rates abroad have been elevated relative to dollar funding rates available in the United States, reflecting a structural dollar funding shortfall outside of the United States. The increase in the amount of foreign exchange swap authorization limits will enable many central banks to increase the amount of dollar funding that they can provide in their home markets. This should help to improve the distribution of dollar liquidity around the globe.
Release Date: October 14, 2008
For immediate release
The Federal Open Market Committee has authorized an increase in the size of its temporary reciprocal currency arrangement (swap line) with the Bank of Japan, so that the Bank of Japan can provide U.S. dollar funding in quantities sufficient to meet demand.
Following on the joint announcement by central banks on October 13, the Bank of Japan announced Tuesday that it will conduct tenders of U.S. dollar funding for full allotment at pre-announced fixed rates. As in Europe, counterparties in Japan will be able to borrow any amount they wish against appropriate collateral.
Accordingly, the size of the swap line between the Federal Reserve and the Bank of Japan will be increased to accommodate whatever quantity of U.S. dollar funding is demanded. On October 13, the Federal Reserve made the same announcement with respect to its swap lines with the Bank of England, European Central Bank, and Swiss National Bank.
These arrangements have been authorized through April 30, 2009.
Release Date: October 28, 2008
For release at 5:00 p.m. EDT
Today, the Federal Reserve and the Reserve Bank of New Zealand are announcing the establishment of a temporary reciprocal currency arrangement (swap line) to address ongoing, elevated pressures in U.S. dollar short-term funding markets. This facility, like those already established with other central banks, is designed to help improve liquidity conditions in global financial markets.
Federal Reserve Actions
The Federal Open Market Committee has authorized the establishment of a new swap facility with the Reserve Bank of New Zealand that will support the provision of U.S. dollar liquidity in amounts of up to $15 billion. This reciprocal currency arrangement has been authorized through April 30, 2009.
The FOMC previously authorized temporary reciprocal currency arrangements with nine other central banks: the Reserve Bank of Australia, the Bank of Canada, Danmarks Nationalbank, the Bank of England, the European Central Bank, the Bank of Japan, the Norges Bank, the Sveriges Riksbank, and the Swiss National Bank.
Information on Related Actions Being Taken by Other Central Banks
Information on the actions that will be taken by the Reserve Bank of New Zealand is available at the following website:
Release Date: February 3, 2009
For release at 10:00 a.m. EST
The Federal Reserve on Tuesday announced the extension through October 30, 2009, of its existing liquidity programs that were scheduled to expire on April 30, 2009. The Board of Governors and the Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC) took these actions in light of continuing substantial strains in many financial markets.
The Board of Governors approved the extension through October 30 of the Asset-Backed Commercial Paper Money Market Mutual Fund Liquidity Facility (AMLF), the Commercial Paper Funding Facility (CPFF), the Money Market Investor Funding Facility (MMIFF), the Primary Dealer Credit Facility (PDCF), and the Term Securities Lending Facility (TSLF). The FOMC also took action to extend the TSLF, which is established under the joint authority of the Board and the FOMC.
In addition, to address continued pressures in global U.S. dollar funding markets, the temporary reciprocal currency arrangements (swap lines) between the Federal Reserve and other central banks have been extended to October 30. This extension currently applies to the swap lines between the Federal Reserve and each of the following central banks: the Reserve Bank of Australia, the Banco Central do Brasil, the Bank of Canada, Danmarks Nationalbank, the Bank of England, the European Central Bank, the Bank of Korea, the Banco de Mexico, the Reserve Bank of New Zealand, the Norges Bank, the Monetary Authority of Singapore, the Sveriges Riksbank, and the Swiss National Bank. The Bank of Japan will consider the extension at its next Monetary Policy Meeting. The Federal Reserve action to extend the swap lines was taken by the Federal Open Market Committee.
The current expiration date for the Term Asset-Backed Securities Loan Facility (TALF) remains December 31, 2009. Other Federal Reserve liquidity facilities, such as the Term Auction Facility (TAF), do not have a fixed expiration date.
The AMLF provides loans to depository institutions to purchase asset-backed commercial paper from money market mutual funds. The CPFF provides a liquidity backstop to U.S. issuers of commercial paper. The MMIFF supports a private-sector initiative to provide liquidity to U.S. money market investors. The PDCF provides discount window loans to primary dealers. Under the TSLF, the Federal Reserve Bank of New York auctions term loans of Treasury securities to primary dealers. The TALF will support the issuance of asset-backed securities collateralized by student loans, auto loans, credit card loans, and loans guaranteed by the Small Business Administration. Under the TAF, Reserve Banks auction term discount window loans to depository institutions.
Release Date: April 6, 2009
For release at 10:00 a.m. EDT
The Federal Reserve, the Bank of England, the European Central Bank, the Bank of Japan, and the Swiss National Bank announce swap arrangements
The Bank of England, the European Central Bank (ECB), the Federal Reserve, the Bank of Japan, and the Swiss National Bank are announcing swap arrangements that would enable the provision of foreign currency liquidity by the Federal Reserve to U.S. financial institutions. Should the need arise, euro, yen, sterling and Swiss francs would be provided to the Federal Reserve via these additional swap agreements with the relevant central banks. Central banks continue to work together and are taking steps as appropriate to foster stability in global financial markets.
Federal Reserve Actions
The Federal Open Market Committee has authorized new temporary reciprocal currency arrangements (foreign currency liquidity swap lines) with the Bank of England, the ECB, the Bank of Japan, and the Swiss National Bank. If drawn upon, these arrangements would support operations by the Federal Reserve to provide liquidity in sterling in amounts of up to £30 billion, in euro in amounts of up to €80 billion, in yen in amounts of up to ¥10 trillion, and in Swiss francs in amounts of up to CHF 40 billion.
These foreign currency liquidity swap lines have been authorized through October 30, 2009.
Release Date: May 9, 2010
For release at 9:15 p.m. EDT
In response to the reemergence of strains in U.S. dollar short-term funding markets in Europe, the Bank of Canada, the Bank of England, the European Central Bank, the Federal Reserve, and the Swiss National Bank are announcing the reestablishment of temporary U.S. dollar liquidity swap facilities. These facilities are designed to help improve liquidity conditions in U.S. dollar funding markets and to prevent the spread of strains to other markets and financial centers. The Bank of Japan will be considering similar measures soon. Central banks will continue to work together closely as needed to address pressures in funding markets.
Federal Reserve Actions
The Federal Open Market Committee has authorized temporary reciprocal currency arrangements (swap lines) with the Bank of Canada, the Bank of England, the European Central Bank (ECB), and the Swiss National Bank. The arrangements with the Bank of England, the ECB, and the Swiss National Bank will provide these central banks with the capacity to conduct tenders of U.S. dollars in their local markets at fixed rates for full allotment, similar to arrangements that had been in place previously. The arrangement with the Bank of Canada would support drawings of up to $30 billion, as was the case previously.
These swap arrangements have been authorized through January 2011. Further details on these arrangements will be available shortly.
Release Date: November 30, 2011
For release at 8:00 a.m. EST
The Bank of Canada, the Bank of England, the Bank of Japan, the European Central Bank, the Federal Reserve, and the Swiss National Bank are today announcing coordinated actions to enhance their capacity to provide liquidity support to the global financial system. The purpose of these actions is to ease strains in financial markets and thereby mitigate the effects of such strains on the supply of credit to households and businesses and so help foster economic activity.
These central banks have agreed to lower the pricing on the existing temporary U.S. dollar liquidity swap arrangements by 50 basis points so that the new rate will be the U.S. dollar overnight index swap (OIS) rate plus 50 basis points. This pricing will be applied to all operations conducted from December 5, 2011. The authorization of these swap arrangements has been extended to February 1, 2013. In addition, the Bank of England, the Bank of Japan, the European Central Bank, and the Swiss National Bank will continue to offer three-month tenders until further notice.
As a contingency measure, these central banks have also agreed to establish temporary bilateral liquidity swap arrangements so that liquidity can be provided in each jurisdiction in any of their currencies should market conditions so warrant. At present, there is no need to offer liquidity in non-domestic currencies other than the U.S. dollar, but the central banks judge it prudent to make the necessary arrangements so that liquidity support operations could be put into place quickly should the need arise. These swap lines are authorized through February 1, 2013.
Federal Reserve Actions
The Federal Open Market Committee has authorized an extension of the existing temporary U.S. dollar liquidity swap arrangements with the Bank of Canada, the Bank of England, the Bank of Japan, the European Central Bank, and the Swiss National Bank through February 1, 2013. The rate on these swap arrangements has been reduced from the U.S. dollar OIS rate plus 100 basis points to the OIS rate plus 50 basis points. In addition, as a contingency measure, the Federal Open Market Committee has agreed to establish similar temporary swap arrangements with these five central banks to provide liquidity in any of their currencies if necessary. Further details on the revised arrangements will be available shortly.
U.S. financial institutions currently do not face difficulty obtaining liquidity in short-term funding markets. However, were conditions to deteriorate, the Federal Reserve has a range of tools available to provide an effective liquidity backstop for such institutions and is prepared to use these tools as needed to support financial stability and to promote the extension of credit to U.S. households and businesses.
|2012||513||Federal Reserve Transparency Act|
Each year, there are numerous bills introduced that are not voted on in the House or Senate. These bills may be sponsored by numerous people and a representative's co-sponsorship of that legislation gives insight into that person's viewpoints.
|Session||Bill Number||Co-Sponsors||Bill Title|
|Session||Bill Number||Co-Sponsors||Bill Title|
|112||H R 459||81||Federal Reserve Transparency Act of 2011|
|111||H R 1207||166||Federal Reserve Transparency Act of 2009|
|109||H R 5559||5||Independent Health Record Bank Act of 2006|