In 1973, the Supreme Court ruled in Roe vs Wade that a person had a right to an abortion up to the point where the fetus is viable. While there have been a couple of votes in the Senate expressing support for Roe vs Wade and most politicians express their opinions on abortion in terms of Roe vs Wade, Congress itself has not voted on whether or not abortion should be legal.
A few years after the ruling, Congress enacted the Hyde amendment to prevent federal funds from being used to pay for abortions. The general belief of the amendment was that it was immoral to force those who view abortion as killing a child to pay for that service through taxes. Although the purpose of the amendment was clear, the subject of federal funds and abortion has remained muddled. Alternating Presidents have enacted and removed the "Mexico City" policy to prohibit US funds from going to groups overseas that perform or promote abortions. Numerous votes have taken place concerning funds to the UN and other groups attempting to ensure that either abortions weren't performed using the funds or that groups did not use the funds to coerce women into having an abortion.
In 2009 and 2010, there was a large discussion on federal funding for abortion in what would be a "public option." Pro-life groups believed that if the government paid for insurance plans that covered abortions, then that was no different than direct funding for abortions. Eventually, the Stupak amendment was passed to address this concern and President Obama issued an executive order to ensure that no such funds were used for abortions in the plans. More recently, a great deal of discussion and a House vote have occurred concerning funding for Planned Parenthood.
The major recent legislation on abortion is the 2003 ban on the procedure known as partial-birth abortion. When awareness of the procedure reached critical mass in the 1990's, pro-life representatives moved forward with legislation to ban the practice in 1995. That legislation was vetoed by President Clinton, and similar legislation passed in 1997 but did not have the majorities necessary to override another Presidential veto. Finally, the ban was passed in 2003. These votes are highlighted in each representatives profile and video or text on the subject is shown if available.
Since the ban on partial-birth abortions, legislation dealing with abortion has been focused on parental notification laws and protecting the unborn from violence. The House passed the Child Custody Protection Act in 1998, 1999, 2002, and 2006, and passed the Child Interstate Abortion Notification Act in 2006. The Senate passed the Child Interstate Abortion Notification Act in 2006. Both pieces of legislation made it illegal to transport a minor across state lines for an abortion without the consent of the minor's parents. The law was not able to overcome a Senate filibuster in 2006.
The House passed the Unborn Victims of Violence Act in 1999, 2001, and 2004. The law changed federal legislation to include crimes against an unborn fetus as an additional crime. The law was given an extra push by high profile muders and passed the Senate in 2004.
A representative's views on abortion can be further subdivided beyond pro-life and pro-choice by determining how the view the items discussed above, such as funding, the partial birth abortion ban, and parental notification laws. Specifically, the following questions are addressed for each representative where possible.
- Pro-Life or Pro-Choicernrn
- If Pro-Life, do they allow exceptions for rape or incest?
- What is their position on Roe vs Wade?rnrn
- Is that position based on morals, the legality of the law, or both?
- When does life begin?
- What is their position on federal funding for abortions?
- Do they support the "Mexico City" policy?
- Do they support parental notification laws?
- Do they support the ban on partial birth abortions?
To answer these questions, Congressional voting records are used, statements from campaign and official websites, videos from debates, speeches, and fundraisers, and print and video interviews. The text below shows the votes that have been highlighted to determine a person's position, and then the questions cited above are addressed where relative.
The legislation discussed under abortion includes the partial birth abortion bans, parental notification laws, parental notification laws, the unborn victims of violence act, and attempts to ban federal funding for planned parenthood.
|Partial-Birth Abortion Ban Act of 1995||Official Summary||Bill Text|
|Partial Birth Abortion Ban Act of 1997||Official Summary||Bill Text|
|Partial Birth Abortion Ban Act of 2003||Official Summary||Bill Text|
|Child Interstate Abortion Notification Act||Official Summary||Bill Text|
|Unborn Victims of Violence Act||Official Summary||Bill Text|
Roe vs Wade
Roe vs Wade was the 1973 supreme court decision that effectively made abortions legal in the US. The decision held that a person has a right to abortion up until viability. The Roe decision defined "viable" as being "potentially able to live outside the mother's womb, albeit with artificial aid." It placed viability at about seven months (28 weeks) but stated that it may occur earlier - as early as 24 weeks.
Since that time, the Senate has twice voted on resolutions to express the Sense of the Senate that it supported the supreme court's ruling in Roe vs Wade. The first of these votes was in 1999 and the second was in 2003.
The Legality of Roe vs Wade
Aside from a representative's view on the morality of abortion, some representatives also address the legality of the ruling in Roe vs Wade. Those who hold that the ruling is unconstitutional usually do so on the doctrine of enumerated powers. The basic philosophy of the doctrine is that Article I Section 8 of the Constitution clearly defines a set of 18 powers that the federal government will have once established, and that the tenth amendment to the Constitution (part of the Bill of Rights) states that any power not specifically given to the federal government and not specifically forbidden to the states is to be left to the states.
The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people.
Since reproductive rights are not addressed in the Constitution, those that abide by the principle of federalism hold that according to the tenth amendment those rights are to be addressed at the state level. There have been no votes directly related to this matter, but video or interview evidence is presented if available.
The Partial Birth Abortion Ban
During the early 1990s people became aware that doctors in the country were performing a procedure known as partial-birth abortions. Pro-Life legislators began to push for a ban on the act. On November 1, 1995, the U.S. House of Representatives voted 288 to 139 to pass the Partial-Birth Abortion Ban Act of 1995 (Summary, Text). On December 7, 1995, the U.S. Senate voted 54 to 44 to ban this procedure. President Bill Clinton vetoed this bill on April 10, 1996.
After President Clinton was re-elected, prolife legislators continued to work to ban this procedure. On March 20, 1997, the House voted 295 to 136 to pass a bill that was similar to the one from 1995 with slight language changes. On May 20, 1997, the U.S. Senate voted 64 to 36 for the Partial Birth Abortion Ban Act of 1997 (Summary, Text). Unfortunately, the Senate was three votes shy of the necessary two-thirds majority to override the veto that was promised by President Clinton.
President Clinton said that he would have signed this bill if it had made exceptions for women who had serious health problems. Exceptions for "serious health problems" would not prevent partial-birth abortions from being performed because of a definition in a U.S. Supreme Court decision. In the case Doe v. Bolton, the U.S. Supreme Court defined health (in the context of abortion) as "all factors—physical, emotional, psychological, familial, and the woman’s age—relevant to the well-being of the patient." This means that abortion doctors can pick from an endless list of health reasons to abort a child, even during the last trimester of pregnancy.
On June 28, 2000, in the case of Stenberg v. Carhart, the U.S. Supreme Court, in a 5-4 decision, overturned a Nebraska law that banned partial-birth abortions. Because the U.S. Supreme Court deemed the Nebraska ban to be unconstitutional, state and federal lawmakers were challenged to write legislation which was different, but would still prohibit partial-birth abortions.
In response to the Carhart ruling, Congress passed and President Bush signed the Partial Birth Abortion Ban Act of 2003 (Summary, Text). This legislation provides a more exact definition of partial-birth abortion and contains Congressional findings that partial-birth abortion is never medically necessary to save the health of the mother. The legislation originally passed the Senate on March 13, 2003 in a 64-13 vote and passed the House on June 4, 2003 in a 282-139 vote. After passing through both chambers, the conference report on the legislation went through both chambers with a similar vote total.
The 2003 Partial-Birth Abortion law defined a partial-birth abortion, made the practice illegal, authorized the father, if married to the mother at the time of the abortion, and the maternal grandparents of the fetus, if the mother is under 18 years of age, to obtain specified relief in a civil action, prohibited the prosecution of a woman upon whom a partial-birth abortion is performed for conspiracy to violate this Act, and authorized a defendant accused of an offense under this Act to seek a hearing before the State Medical Board on whether the physician's conduct was necessary to save the life of the mother.
The definition given by the legislation for a partial birth abortion is:
an abortion in which the person performing the abortion:
- deliberately and intentionally vaginally delivers a living fetus until, in the case of a head-first presentation, the entire fetal head is outside the mother's body, or, in the case of a breech presentation, any part of the fetal trunk past the navel is outside the mother's body
- performs the overt act, other than completion of delivery, that kills the partially delivered living fetus
One of the chief problems for the pro-life movement was the seemingly countering statements within the law. The legislation made the law illegal and contained findings as shown below that partial birth abortions were never medically necessary, and yet also included statements that a doctor was allowed a hearing before the State Medical Board on whether the procedure was necessary.
(1) A moral, medical, and ethical consensus exists that the practice of performing a partial-birth abortion—an abortion in which a physician deliberately and intentionally vaginally delivers a living, unborn child’s body until either the entire baby’s head is outside the body of the mother, or any part of the baby’s trunk past the navel is outside the body of the mother and only the head remains inside the womb, for the purpose of performing an overt act (usually the puncturing of the back of the child’s skull and removing the baby’s brains) that the person knows will kill the partially delivered infant, performs this act, and then completes delivery of the dead infant—is a gruesome and inhumane procedure that is never medically necessary and should be prohibited.
(2) Rather than being an abortion procedure that is embraced by the medical community, particularly among physicians who routinely perform other abortion procedures, partial birth abortion remains a disfavored procedure that is not only unnecessary to preserve the health of the mother, but in fact poses serious risks to the long-term health of women and in some circumstances, their lives. As a result, at least 27 States banned the procedure as did the United States Congress which voted to ban the procedure during the 104th, 105th, and 106th Congresses.
Parental Notification Laws
Many of the votes related to abortion deal with ensuring that a minor cannot receive an abortion without the consent of the minor's parents. These laws also ensure that minors are not transported across state lines to obtain an abortion. There are two laws that have been voted on to address this issue. The House passed the first of these laws in 1999 - the Child Custody Protection Act. This law was passed again in the House in 2006 and was the House version of the Senate law - the Child Interstate Abortion Notification Act (Summary, Text). However, despite passing the Senate in July with a filibuster proof majority, the law did not achieve the votes necessary to pass a cloture motion in September after it was merged with the House bill.
When the act initially passed the Senate, the punishment for violation of the crime fell upon the person who committed the possible incest with the minor and then transported that minor across state lines. From the summary:
Imposes a fine and/or prison term of up to one year on any person who commits an act of incest with a minor and transports such minor across a state line to obtain an abortion.
When the legislation came back from the House, the punishment portion of the legislation was enforced on the physician who performed the abortion. This punishment was exempted if the minor provided written proof of sexual assault or the physician complied with the in-state laws. This was the reason it failed to move pass a cloture vote. From the summary:
Imposes a fine and/or prison term of up to one year on a physician who performs or induces an abortion on an out-of-state minor in violation of parental notification requirements. Requires such physician to give 24-hour actual or constructive notice to a parent of the minor seeking an abortion. Allows an exception if: (1) the physician complies with parental notification requirements in the physician’s state; (2) the physician is given documentation that a court in the minor’s state of residence has waived parental notification or otherwise authorized the minor’s abortion; (3) the minor provides a written statement that she is the victim of sexual abuse, neglect, or physical abuse by a parent and the physician notifies appropriate state officials of such abuse; (4) the abortion is necessary to save the life of the minor (written notice must be given to the minor's parent within 24 hours after the lifesaving abortion is performed): or (5) a person accompanying the minor provides documentation to the physician that such person is the parent of the minor.
The Mexico City Policy
In response to the Roe vs Wade ruling, in 1976 Congress passed a rider to the budget bill known as the "Hyde Amendment." The amendment prevented the use of government funds for abortions. Originally, the legislation did not allow exceptions for rape or incest, but that was eventually changed.
In addition to the use of federal funds for abortion in the US, there has been a long debate on funding for programs outside the US. The "Mexico City" policy refers to a policy that ensures that any organizations receiving US funds must refrain from performing or promoting abortions. The policy is a political flashpoint in the abortion debate, with Republican administrations adopting it and Democratic administrations rescinding it. The policy was in place from 1984 through January 1993 when it was rescinded by Democratic President Bill Clinton, was re-instituted in January 2001 when Republican President George W. Bush took office, and was rescinded January 23, 2009, shortly after Democratic President Barack Obama took office.
On May 16, 2001 the House voted on an amendment to preserve the President's legal authority to implement "Mexico-City Policy" which prohibits U.S. population assistance funds from being made available to foreign organizations that perform or actively promote abortions in foreign countries. The measure passed 218-210.
In 2007, the Senate failed to pass legislation to prevent funds from going to grantees who provide abortions. In 2009, the Senate also failed to pass legislation to require that amounts appropriated for the United Nations Population Fund are not used by organizations which support coercive abortion or involuntary sterilization.
The Unborn Victims of Violence Act
The Unborn Victims of Violence Act (Summary, Text) recognizes a fetus or a "child in utero" as a legal victim, if he or she is injured or killed during the commission of any of over 60 listed federal crimes of violence. The law defines "child in utero" as "a member of the species Homo sapiens, at any stage of development, who is carried in the womb." Essentially, the act made it illegal to intentionally harm a fetus. An exception is made for an abortion.
Sec. 1841. Protection of unborn children
- (a) (1) Whoever engages in conduct that violates any of the provisions of law listed in subsection (b) and thereby causes the death of, or bodily injury (as defined in section 1365) to, a child, who is in utero at the time the conduct takes place, is guilty of a separate offense under this section.
- (2) (A) Except as otherwise provided in this paragraph, the punishment for that separate offense is the same as the punishment provided under Federal law for that conduct had that injury or death occurred to the unborn child’s mother.
- (B) An offense under this section does not require proof that—rn
- (i) the person engaging in the conduct had knowledge or should have had knowledge that the victim of the underlying offense was pregnant; or
- (ii) the defendant intended to cause the death of, or bodily injury to, the unborn child.
- (C) If the person engaging in the conduct thereby intentionally kills or attempts to kill the unborn child, that person shall instead of being punished under subparagraph (A), be punished as provided under sections 1111, 1112, and 1113 of this title for intentionally killing or attempting to kill a human being.
- (D) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the death penalty shall not be imposed for an offense under this section.
- (b) The provisions referred to in subsection (a) are the following:rn
- (a listing of codes for provisions of laws)
- (c) Nothing in this section shall be construed to permit the prosecution—rn
- (1) of any person for conduct relating to an abortion for which the consent of the pregnant woman, or a person authorized by law to act on her behalf, has been obtained or for which such consent is implied by law;
- (2) of any person for any medical treatment of the pregnant woman or her unborn child; or
- (3) of any woman with respect to her unborn child.
- (d) As used in this section, the term “unborn child” means a child in utero, and the term “child in utero” or “child, who is in utero” means a member of the species homo sapiens, at any stage of development, who is carried in the womb.
Critics of the legislation stated that it was an attempt to get a fetus codified as a person in law and set up a legal route to prosecute abortion providers even though the legislation contained a waiver for abortion providers. Some also noted that the law only applied to federal laws and not state crimes.
The legislation passed the House in 1999 and again in 2001, but was never voted on in the Senate. In 2003, the law was pushed forward by the high profile murders of Laci Peterson and her unborn child (Conner) by her husband Scott Peterson. This led to the law to be dubbed "Laci and Conner's Law." The legislation successfully passed both chambers of Congress in 2004 and was enacted into law.
Federal Funding for Abortions
In 2009, the subject of federal funding for abortion became a key issue in health care reform. Pro-Life legislators were concerned that credits issued to those who could not pay for health care would be used to purchase insurance plans called a "public option" that would cover abortion. Pro-Life groups claimed this was merely a middle-man between the federal funds and the abortion providers. In attempting to address this concern, Congressman Bart Stupak of Michigan introduced an amendment to prevent the use of public funds for abortions in the "public option." The measure passed the House 240-194.
Amendment codifies the Hyde Amendment in H.R. 3962; prohibits federal funds for abortion services in the public option and prohibits individuals who receive affordability credits from purchasing a plan that provides elective abortions. Amendment does allow individuals, who receive affordability credits or not, to separately purchase with their own funds, plans that cover elective abortions. Finally, the amendment clarifies that private plans may still offer elective abortions.
To clarify that public funds would not be used for the "public option," President Obama issued an executive order. Critics of this move noted that the President does not have the authority to issue law through an executive order, only to issue orders in relation to the enforcement of current law.
The White House
Office of the Press Secretary
For Immediate Release March 24, 2010
Executive Order -- Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act's Consistency with Longstanding Restrictions on the Use of Federal Funds for Abortion
ENSURING ENFORCEMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION OF ABORTION RESTRICTIONS IN THE PATIENT PROTECTION AND AFFORDABLE CARE ACT
By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including the "Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act" (Public Law 111-148), I hereby order as follows:
Section. 1. Policy. Following the recent enactment of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (the "Act"), it is necessary to establish an adequate enforcement mechanism to ensure that Federal funds are not used for abortion services (except in cases of rape or incest, or when the life of the woman would be endangered), consistent with a longstanding Federal statutory restriction that is commonly known as the Hyde Amendment. The purpose of this order is to establish a comprehensive, Government-wide set of policies and procedures to achieve this goal and to make certain that all relevant actors -- Federal officials, State officials (including insurance regulators) and health care providers -- are aware of their responsibilities, new and old.
The Act maintains current Hyde Amendment restrictions governing abortion policy and extends those restrictions to the newly created health insurance exchanges. Under the Act, longstanding Federal laws to protect conscience (such as the Church Amendment, 42 U.S.C. 300a-7, and the Weldon Amendment, section 508(d)(1) of Public Law 111-8) remain intact and new protections prohibit discrimination against health care facilities and health care providers because of an unwillingness to provide, pay for, provide coverage of, or refer for abortions.
Numerous executive agencies have a role in ensuring that these restrictions are enforced, including the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), the Office of Management and Budget (OMB), and the Office of Personnel Management.
Sec. 2. Strict Compliance with Prohibitions on Abortion Funding in Health Insurance Exchanges. The Act specifically prohibits the use of tax credits and cost-sharing reduction payments to pay for abortion services (except in cases of rape or incest, or when the life of the woman would be endangered) in the health insurance exchanges that will be operational in 2014. The Act also imposes strict payment and accounting requirements to ensure that Federal funds are not used for abortion services in exchange plans (except in cases of rape or incest, or when the life of the woman would be endangered) and requires State health insurance commissioners to ensure that exchange plan funds are segregated by insurance companies in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, OMB funds management circulars, and accounting guidance provided by the Government Accountability Office.
I hereby direct the Director of the OMB and the Secretary of HHS to develop, within 180 days of the date of this order, a model set of segregation guidelines for State health insurance commissioners to use when determining whether exchange plans are complying with the Act's segregation requirements, established in section 1303 of the Act, for enrollees receiving Federal financial assistance. The guidelines shall also offer technical information that States should follow to conduct independent regular audits of insurance companies that participate in the health insurance exchanges. In developing these model guidelines, the Director of the OMB and the Secretary of HHS shall consult with executive agencies and offices that have relevant expertise in accounting principles, including, but not limited to, the Department of the Treasury, and with the Government Accountability Office. Upon completion of those model guidelines, the Secretary of HHS should promptly initiate a rulemaking to issue regulations, which will have the force of law, to interpret the Act's segregation requirements, and shall provide guidance to State health insurance commissioners on how to comply with the model guidelines.
Sec. 3. Community Health Center Program. The Act establishes a new Community Health Center (CHC) Fund within HHS, which provides additional Federal funds for the community health center program. Existing law prohibits these centers from using Federal funds to provide abortion services (except in cases of rape or incest, or when the life of the woman would be endangered), as a result of both the Hyde Amendment and longstanding regulations containing the Hyde language. Under the Act, the Hyde language shall apply to the authorization and appropriations of funds for Community Health Centers under section 10503 and all other relevant provisions. I hereby direct the Secretary of HHS to ensure that program administrators and recipients of Federal funds are aware of and comply with the limitations on abortion services imposed on CHCs by existing law. Such actions should include, but are not limited to, updating Grant Policy Statements that accompany CHC grants and issuing new interpretive rules.
Sec. 4. General Provisions. (a) Nothing in this order shall be construed to impair or otherwise affect: (i) authority granted by law or Presidential directive to an agency, or the head thereof; or (ii) functions of the Director of the OMB relating to budgetary, administrative, or legislative proposals.
(b) This order shall be implemented consistent with applicable law and subject to the availability of appropriations.
(c) This order is not intended to, and does not, create any right or benefit, substantive or procedural, enforceable at law or in equity by any party against the United States, its departments, agencies, or entities, its officers, employees or agents, or any other person.
THE WHITE HOUSE,
March 24, 2010.
In 2011, discussions over Planned Parenthood led to a vote on the House floor to strip the company of any government funding. In addition to apparent improper behavior, it was determined that Planned Parenthood was paid by the government to perform non-abortion related activities and the proceeds of that activity could then be used to fund abortions. In this manner, the government is no directly paying for abortions, but is enabling their continuation through the funding of groups that also perform abortions. The amendment passed the House in February of 2011.
None of the funds made available by this Act may be made available for any purpose to Planned Parenthood Federation of America, Inc. or any of the following affiliates of Planned Parenthood Federation of America, Inc.:
(1) Planned Parenthood Southeast in Atlanta, Georgia.
(2) Planned Parenthood of the Great Northwest in Seattle, Washington.
(3) Planned Parenthood Arizona in Phoenix, Arizona.
(4) Planned Parenthood of Arkansas and Eastern Oklahoma in Tulsa, Oklahoma.
(5) Planned Parenthood of Greater Memphis Region in Memphis, Tennessee.
(6) Planned Parenthood Affiliates of California in Sacramento, California.
(7) Planned Parenthood Los Angeles in Los Angeles, California.
(8) Planned Parenthood Mar Monte in San Jose, California.
(9) Planned Parenthood of Orange & San Bernardino Counties, Inc. in Orange, California.
(10) Planned Parenthood Pasadena and San Gabriel Valley, Inc. in Pasadena, California.
(11) Planned Parenthood of the Pacific Southwest in San Diego, California.
(12) Planned Parenthood of Santa Barbara, Ventura & San Luis Obispo Counties in Santa Barbara, California.
(13) Planned Parenthood: Shasta-Diablo in Concord, California.
(14) Six Rivers Planned Parenthood in Eureka, California.
(15) Planned Parenthood of the Rocky Mountains in Denver, Colorado.
(16) Planned Parenthood of Southern New England, Inc. in New Haven, Connecticut.
(17) Planned Parenthood of Delaware in Wilmington, Delaware.
(18) Planned Parenthood of Metropolitan Washington, D.C., Inc. in Washington, District of Columbia.
(19) Florida Association of Planned Parenthood Affiliates in Sarasota, Florida.
(20) Planned Parenthood of Collier County in Naples, Florida.
(21) Planned Parenthood of Greater Orlando, Inc. in Orlando, Florida.
(22) Planned Parenthood of North Florida in Jacksonville, Florida.
(23) Planned Parenthood of South Florida and the Treasure Coast, Inc. in West Palm Beach, Florida.
(24) Planned Parenthood of Southwest and Central Florida, Inc. in Sarasota, Florida.
(25) Planned Parenthood of Hawaii in Honolulu, Hawaii.
(26) Planned Parenthood of Greater Washington and North Idaho in Yakima, Washington.
(27) Planned Parenthood of Illinois in Chicago, Illinois.
(28) Planned Parenthood of the St. Louis Region in St. Louis, Missouri.
(29) Planned Parenthood of Indiana, Inc. in Indianapolis, Indiana.
(30) Iowa Planned Parenthood Affiliate League in Des Moines, Iowa.
(31) Planned Parenthood of East Central Iowa in Cedar Rapids, Iowa.
(32) Planned Parenthood of the Heartland in Des Moines, Iowa.
(33) Planned Parenthood of Southeast Iowa in Burlington, Iowa.
(34) Planned Parenthood of Kansas and Mid-Missouri in Overland Park, Kansas.
(35) Planned Parenthood of Kentucky, Inc. in Louisville, Kentucky.
(36) Planned Parenthood Southwest Ohio Region in Cincinnati, Ohio.
(37) Planned Parenthood Gulf Coast, Inc. in Houston, Texas.
(38) Planned Parenthood of Northern New England in Williston, Vermont.
(39) Planned Parenthood of Maryland, Inc. in Baltimore, Maryland.
(40) Planned Parenthood League of Massachusetts in Boston, Massachusetts.
(41) Planned Parenthood Affiliates of Michigan in Lansing, Michigan.
(42) Planned Parenthood of West and Northern Michigan in Grand Rapids, Michigan.
(43) Planned Parenthood Mid and South Michigan in Ann Arbor, Michigan.
(44) Planned Parenthood of South Central Michigan in Kalamazoo, Michigan.
(45) Planned Parenthood of Minnesota, North Dakota, South Dakota in St. Paul, Minnesota.
(46) Planned Parenthood of Southwest Missouri in St. Louis, Missouri.
(47) Tri-Rivers Planned Parenthood in Rolla, Missouri.
(48) Planned Parenthood of Montana, Inc. in Billings, Montana.
(49) Planned Parenthood of the Heartland in Omaha, Nebraska.
(50) Planned Parenthood Affiliates of New Jersey in Trenton, New Jersey.
(51) Planned Parenthood Association of the Mercer Area in Trenton, New Jersey.
(52) Planned Parenthood of Central New Jersey in Shrewsbury, New Jersey.
(53) Planned Parenthood of Greater Northern New Jersey, Inc. in Morristown, New Jersey.
(54) Planned Parenthood of Metropolitan New Jersey in Newark, New Jersey.
(55) Planned Parenthood of Southern New Jersey in Camden, New Jersey.
(56) Planned Parenthood of New Mexico, Inc. in Albuquerque, New Mexico.
(57) Family Planning Advocates of New York State in Albany, New York.
(58) Planned Parenthood Hudson Peconic, Inc. in Hawthorne, New York.
(59) Planned Parenthood Mohawk Hudson in Utica, New York.
(60) Planned Parenthood of Mid-Hudson Valley, Inc. in Poughkeepsie, New York.
(61) Planned Parenthood of Nassau County, Inc. in Hempstead, New York.
(62) Planned Parenthood of New York City, Inc. in New York, New York.
(63) Planned Parenthood of the North Country New York, Inc. in Watertown, New York.
(64) Planned Parenthood of South Central New York, Inc. in Oneonta, New York.
(65) Planned Parenthood of the Rochester/Syracuse Region in Rochester, New York.
(66) Planned Parenthood of the Southern Finger Lakes in Ithaca, New York.
(67) Planned Parenthood of Western New York, Inc. in Buffalo, New York.
(68) Upper Hudson Planned Parenthood, Inc. in Albany, New York.
(69) Planned Parenthood Health Systems, Inc. in Raleigh, North Carolina.
(70) Planned Parenthood of Central North Carolina in Chapel Hill, North Carolina.
(71) Planned Parenthood Affiliates of Ohio in Columbus, Ohio.
(72) Planned Parenthood of Central Ohio, Inc. in Columbus, Ohio.
(73) Planned Parenthood of Northeast Ohio in Akron, Ohio.
(74) Planned Parenthood of Northwest Ohio in Toledo, Ohio.
(75) Planned Parenthood of Southeast Ohio in Athens, Ohio.
(76) Planned Parenthood of Central Oklahoma, Inc. in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma.
(77) Planned Parenthood Advocates of Oregon in Eugene, Oregon.
(78) Planned Parenthood of Southwestern Oregon in Eugene, Oregon.
(79) Planned Parenthood Columbia Willamette in Portland, Oregon.
(80) Planned Parenthood Pennsylvania Advocates in Harrisburg, Pennsylvania.
(81) Planned Parenthood Association of Bucks County in Warminster, Pennsylvania.
(82) Planned Parenthood of Central Pennsylvania, Inc. in York, Pennsylvania.
(83) Planned Parenthood of Northeast and Mid-Penn in Trexlertown, Pennsylvania.
(84) Planned Parenthood of Western Pennsylvania in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
(85) Planned Parenthood Southeastern Pennsylvania in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
(86) Planned Parenthood of Middle and East Tennessee, Inc. in Nashville, Tennessee.
(87) Texas Association of Planned Parenthood Affiliates in Austin, Texas.
(88) Planned Parenthood Association of Cameron & Willacy Counties, Inc. in Brownsville, Texas.
(89) Planned Parenthood Association of Hidalgo County, Inc. in McAllen, Texas.
(90) Planned Parenthood Association of Lubbock, Inc. in Lubbock, Texas.
(91) Planned Parenthood of Central Texas, Inc. in Waco, Texas.
(92) Planned Parenthood of North Texas, Inc. in Dallas, Texas.
(93) Planned Parenthood of the Texas Capital Region in Austin, Texas.
(94) Planned Parenthood of West Texas, Inc. in Odessa, Texas.
(95) Planned Parenthood Trust of San Antonio and South Central Texas in San Antonio, Texas.
(96) Planned Parenthood Association of Utah in Salt Lake City, Utah.
(97) Planned Parenthood Advocates of Virginia in Charlottesville, Virginia.
(98) Planned Parenthood of Southeastern Virginia, Inc. in Hampton, Virginia.
(99) Virginia League for Planned Parenthood in Richmond, Virginia.
(100) Planned Parenthood Public Policy Network of Washington in Seattle, Washington.
(101) Mt. Baker Planned Parenthood in Bellingham, Washington.
(102) Planned Parenthood of Wisconsin, Inc. in Milwaukee, Wisconsin.
The votes that are currently being tracked in the House and Senate for abortion are shown below. If your representative was in office at the time of the vote, the abortion tab under their profile will show their vote for that roll call.
|1995||756||Partial-Birth Abortion Ban Act|
|1997||65||Partial-Birth Abortion Ban Act|
|1998||325||Partial-Birth Abortion Ban Act|
|1998||280||Child Custody Protection Act|
|1999||465||Unborn Victims of Violence Act|
|1999||261||Child Custody Protection Act|
|2000||104||Partial-Birth Abortion Ban Act of 2000|
|2001||89||Unborn Victims of Violence Act|
|2001||115||Mexico City Policy|
|2002||97||Child Custody Protection Act|
|2002||412||Abortion Non-Discrimination Act of 2002|
|2003||530||Partial-Birth Abortion Ban Act|
|2003||242||Partial Birth Abortion|
|2004||31||Laci and Connors Law|
|2005||144||Child Interstate Abortion Notification Act|
|2006||526||Unborn Child Pain Awareness Act|
|2006||526||Unborn Child Pain Awareness Act of 2006|
|2006||479||Child Custody Protection Act|
|2011||93||Amendment - Planned Parenthood Funds|
|1995||596||Partial-Birth Abortion Ban Act of 1995|
|1997||71||Partial-Birth Abortion Ban Act of 1997|
|1999||340||Partial Birth Abortion|
|1999||337||Roe vs Wade|
|2003||51||Partial Birth Abortion|
|2003||48||Expressing the Sense of the Senate in Roe vs Wade|
|2003||402||Partial Birth Abortion|
|2004||63||Unborn Victims of Violence Act|
|2006||263||Child Interstate Abortion Notification Act|
|2006||216||Child Interstate Abortion Notification Act|
|2007||379||Amendment to Prohibit Funds|
|2007||318||Amendment - funds to abortion providers|
|2008||81||Amendment - SCHIP and unborn children|
|2008||71||Amendment - Funding for enforcement|
|2009||81||Amendment - Funds to coercive abortions|
Each year, there are numerous bills introduced that are not voted on in the House or Senate. These bills may be sponsored by numerous people and a representative's co-sponsorship of that legislation gives insight into that person's viewpoints. If a representative sponsored or co-sponsored any of the legislation below, that item will appear in their profile under the abortions tab in the political positions section of their profile.
|Session||Bill Number||Co-Sponsors||Bill Title|
|112||H R 3||210||No Taxpayer Funding for Abortion Act|
|112||H R 212||62||Sanctity of Human Life Act|
|112||H R 217||168||Title X Abortion Provider Prohibition Act|
|112||H R 358||135||Protect Life Act|
|112||H R 374||62||Life at Conception Act|
|111||H R 5939||186||No Taxpayer Funding for Abortion Act|
|111||H R 634||106||Child Interstate Abortion Notification Act|
|111||H R 5276||89||Unborn Child Pain Awareness Act of 2010|
|111||H R 614||69||Title X Abortion Provider Prohibition Act|
|111||H R 649||58||Ultrasound Informed Consent Act|
|111||H R 227||54||Sanctity of Human Life Act|
|111||H R 881||52||Right to Life Act|
|111||H R 5121||38||Global Sexual and Reproductive Health Act of 2010|
|111||H R 708||31||Abortion and Foreign Organizations|
|110||H R 1063||135||Child Interstate Abortion Notification Act|
|110||H R 3442||119||Unborn Child Pain Awareness Act of 2007|
|110||H R 1063||135||Child Interstate Abortion Notification Act|
|110||H R 3442||119||Unborn Child Pain Awareness Act of 2007|
|110||H R 618||112||Right to Life Act|
|110||H R 1964||111||Freedom of Choice Act|
|110||H R 5032||72||Ultrasound Informed Consent Act|
|110||H R 4133||70||Title X Abortion Provider Prohibition Act|
|110||H R 4157||60||Sanctity of Human Life Act|
|110||H R 6453||52||Schoolchildren's Health Protection Act|
|109||H R 6099||119||Unborn Child Pain Awareness Act of 2006|
|108||H R 1755||0||Child Custody Protection Act|
|108||H R 4420||0||Unborn Child Pain Awareness Act of 2004|
|107||H R 2175||105||Born-Alive Infants Protection Act of 2002|
|107||H Con Res 70||21||Population Reduction|
|Session||Bill Number||Co-Sponsors||Bill Title|
|112||S 91||15||Life at Conception Act|
|112||S 96||6||Title X Family Planning Act|
|112||S 167||13||Child Custody Protection Act|
|112||S 314||18||Unborn Child Pain Awareness Act of 2011|
|112||S 1415||12||Access to Birth Control Act|
|111||S 14||18||Unborn Child Pain Awareness Act of 2010|
|111||S 85||7||Title X Family Planning Act|
|111||S 21||28||Prevention First Act|
|111||S 611||13||Responsible Education About Life Act|
|111||S 3723||27||Excluding Abortion Coverage from Health Reform Act|
|111||S 1179||16||Child Custody Protection Act|
|111||S 311||5||Global Democracy Promotion Act|
|110||S 2543||28||Child Custody Protection Act|
|110||S 356||29||Unborn Child Pain Awareness Act of 2007|
|110||S 2075||9||Ultrasound Informed Consent Act|
|110||S 356||29||Unborn Child Pain Awareness Act of 2007|
|110||S 1173||19||Freedom of Choice Act|
|110||S 3111||12||Life at Conception Act|
|110||S 21||34||Prevention First Act - Title X Family Planning Services Act of 2007|
|109||S 8||41||Child Custody Protection Act|
|109||S 403||43||Child Interstate Abortion Notification Act|
|109||S 51||34||Unborn Child Pain Awareness Act of 2005|
|109||S 403||43||Child Interstate Abortion Notification Act|
|109||S 8||41||Child Custody Protection Act|
|109||S 51||34||Unborn Child Pain Awareness Act of 2005|
|109||S 1983||13||Abortion Non-Discrimination Act of 2005|
|109||S 2593||11||Freedom of Choice Act|
|108||S 3||45||Partial-Birth Abortion Ban Act of 2003|
|108||S 851||24||Child Custody Protection Act|
|108||S 2466||26||Unborn Child Pain Awareness Act of 2004|
|106||S 928||43||Partial-Birth Abortion Ban Act of 1999|
|106||S 661||26||Child Custody Protection Act|
|106||S 1692||43||Partial-Birth Abortion Ban Act of 2000|
|106||S 1200||40||Equity in Prescription Insurance and Contraceptive Coverage Act of 1999|
|105||S 6||42||Partial-Birth Abortion Ban Act of 1997|
|104||S 939||13||Partial-Birth Abortion Ban Act of 1995|
|103||S 25||42||Freedom of Choice Act of 1993|
 Website: Michigan Right to Life Article: Addressing Partial-Birth Abortions Author: NA Accessed on: 04/04/2011